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ction and do not use a Bluetooth headset or take the interview while driving (connectivity and loud noise could easily sway the interview)

· Review the documents included in this email-

· https://www.amazon.jobs/en/landing_pages/phone-interview

· Our Leadership Principles (https://www.amazon.jobs/en/principles) are the fabric that make up Amazon’s culture. They’re also heavily relied upon in the interview process- so definitely take a moment to think of a couple anecdotes from your career for each one.

· Be able to pull specific examples for your previous or current employment and speak about what you have done and how you came up with a solution or resolve an issue. Use the STAR Method Approach

· Be sure to clarify the questions being asked of you to allow yourself to formulate a more precise and accurate answer (Don’t just dive into answering the questions- how do you handle ambiguity)

· Be able to explain your process from beginning to end and if a solution you tried did not go well, how did you come to that conclusion and how did you fix it

· ASK QUESTIONS and MAKE IT A CONVERSATION: as much as we are interviewing you, you are also interviewing us to see if Amazon is the place for you and the work that you will be doing is exciting

ML blockers
Can not be used
Is data available, accessible?
Should not be be used
Low quality data
Scarse / incomplete

Boost high potential sellers

What is our threshold for mistakes being made?
For this particular situations where our confidence is 95% up we do use ML other no.

Experiment the hypothesis

Research scientist
Applied scientist
ML scientist
Data scientist
Business intelligence engineer
Data engineer
Software engineer
Dev manager
Technical program manager
Processes: ML life cycle
Formulate problem
select and preprocess data
feature engineering
train/test/tune models
Tools / Infra


What are the qualities of a good manager?
good communicator
strategic in thinking

Totally focused on aims and strategic goals, You need to be competent and constantly evolve and develop and set good example for the team

Organizations want managers who works towards achieving the goals and strategic aims of the company

Describe your management style
Have high standards
Fair and approachable
Continually evolving, want team to continually evolve too

My management style is a combination of different key elements that are designed to achieve results. I am firm and set high standards. Decisive in decision making, continually improve the team.
I want commitment from team and good work

get best results from team deliver best results for employer

Give example of difficult team you had to manage
mention the team was some time ago. => now you are ready to manage with minimal problem
where you learned a lot from problems, its ok if you make mistake as long as you learn from it

The toughest team was in the early days of becoming a manager. It was a fast and steep learning curve. I made some mistakes and I learned from
The team had just lost a long serving mnager and some people in the team had their ways of working. I went in with new fresh ideas. changed a number of things perhaps too quickly.
The team made it difficult for me to make the changes I wanted to make and the team meetings I held were laborious and challenging process. 
However I preserved, learned from my mistakes and managed to eventually turn things around. 
I started to get the team onboard and listened to their ideas and suggestions
After 6 months hard work we had the best performing team within the org and it was the start of a very productive environment where everybody felt valued and appreciated.
I have learnt a tremendous amount and have a set approach that works really well

What do you like about managing people?
Mention that the difficult and challenging parts are the best elements are managing people.

I love people develop through coaching and motivational skills. Get most out of people regardless of age or experience

The best thing about managing people is that everybody is different and as manager you have to adapt your coaching and motivational skills for each person

I love the challenge of getting the most out of people , supporting them through their work and seeing them achieve great things

regularly check with them to ensure they have what they need but also hold them accountable.

I enjoy managing people and reach my peak when I am motivating coaching and developing my team

As a manager how do you persuade to do what you want?
State you are a good negotiator
you have the skills to motivate and encourage your team to share your vision   -> Give example of getting someone to follow your lead

For example a senior member did not believe in the path we are taking. 
Listened to him, made him aware I value his seniority experience and opinion
explained why his approach would not work
provide evidence
want him to be directly involved for it to be successfull

ask him to take proactive role in managing part of project and explained to him how his expertise is integral to successful delivery of project

By empowering him and utilizing his experience and skill I managed to win him around and he helped to successfully deliver the project on time and budget

Set deadlines
reward praise

How do you handle under-performers?
Be firm
Set goals
provide support and training
Get to the bottom of it quickly

missing deadlines
lacking enthusiasm and determination; carelessly lazy.

--> meet with them, they had serious problems at home, 
--> demonstrate empathy, provide support, agree on a plan to get back to full capacity. options for obtaining counseling
--> have weekly meeting, `

It took ~6 weeks for them to get back on track. This was a success as got to the root of the problem. Created a supportive plan 

1. Research ins and outs of the company. 90% of convo should be about company, 
2. Fits: How everything fits together
3. Everything is about company not role. Contributions to the company
4. It's about their future (offer mode) not your past (eval mode). Imagining how it would be you leading an arm of their organization. How your past/experience can shape the future of their company. 
If I'm hanging in the past then I am not convinced you know how to do this. Talk about situations in THEIR company that are yet to occur. 
- Something they desire and is in their strategy
- Something they ask you what would you do
6. Story sequencing: always start at macro level. talk about benefits and impact you are making
- Here is what the goals were
impact we had
what we achieved

I would liek to see how I can apply this to what you do

Evaluation, strategy, 
7 multiple questions:
Whether you are a good company
Whether you are a good company for me

As an executive
Ask deep quesitons, multi part questions
be a well informed exec and make well educated decisions

8. integrity leadership examples
Leaders build more leaders not more followers. 
how led by example
make them love you and get them fight for you
servant leadership

9. good communications skills

10. The look. You need to look like you are an exec

11 positive talk

The making of a manager
“A MANAGER’S JOB IS not just TO . . .
- have meetings with reports to help them solve their problems,
- share feedback about what is or isn’t going well, and
- figure out who should be promoted and who should be fired.

- build a team that works well together,
- support members in reaching their career goals, and
- create processes to get work done smoothly and efficiently.”

“tell me why those activities matter in the first place.”

evolve from basic day to day activities to long term goals

“So what is the job of a manager? Without understanding this deeply, it’s hard to know how to be good at it.”

“you’re giving up some level of control. You won’t get to make every decision anymore.”

“You believe more people should experience the wonders of your favorite drink. This is the crux of management: It is the belief that a team of people can achieve more than a single person going it alone. ”

“It is the realization that you don’t have to do everything yourself, be the best at everything ”. yourself, or even know how to do everything yourself. Your job, as a manager, is to get better outcomes from a group of people working together.
It’s from this simple definition that everything else flows.”

Great manager from good manager
- “Are they well regarded by other people?
- Can they solve big, strategic problems?
- Do they give killer presentations?
- Can they knock out twenty important tasks in a day?
- Reply to emails while waiting in line for coffee?
- Defuse a tense situation?
- Always be closing? Etc., etc.”

“give kids the skills and knowledge they need to thrive.”

“when it comes to evaluations, one should look at “the output of the work unit and not simply the activity involved. Obviously, you measure a salesman by the orders he gets (output), not by the calls he makes (activity).”

“how he evaluates the job of a manager. He smiled and said, “My framework is quite simple.” Half of what he looked at was my team’s results—did we achieve our aspirations in creating valuable, easy-to-use, and well-crafted design work? The other half was based on the strength and satisfaction of my team—did I do a good job hiring and developing individuals, and was my team happy and working well together?”
“Being awesome at the job means playing the long game and building a reputation for excellence. Through thick or thin, in spite of the hundreds of things calling for your attention every day, never forget what you’re ultimately here to do: help your team achieve great outcomes.”

“When I was first starting out, my mind would have gone straight to the everyday duties—preparing for that next meeting, removing a roadblock for a report, coming up with an execution plan for the next month.”

“purpose, people, and process”
“Why do you wake up and choose to do this thing instead of the thousands of other “things you could be doing? Why pour your time and energy into this particular goal with this particular group of people? What would be different about the world if your team were wildly successful? Everyone on the team should have a similar picture of why does our work matter? If this purpose is missing or unclear, then you may experience conflicts or mismatched expectations.”

“ensure that your team knows what success looks like and cares about achieving it.”

“If Henry thinks your grand plan of “a lemonade stand on every block” is stupid, he won’t be motivated to help you see it through.” or has a different vision, make lemonade stand a hangout place 

“ensure that your team knows what success looks like and cares about achieving it.”

people: are they motivated, do they have the right skills?

“The why, the who, and the how.”

“it matters less and less how good she is personally at doing the work herself. What matters more is how much of a multiplier effect she has on her team.”

“Your role as a manager is not to do the work yourself, even if you are the best at it, because that will only take you so far. Your role is to improve the purpose, people, and process of your team to get as high a multiplier effect on your collective outcome as you can.”

Are you going to be a great maager?
1. “Do I Find It More Motivating to Achieve a Particular Outcome or to Play a Specific Role?”

2. “Do I Like Talking with People?”

3. “Can I Provide Stability for an Emotionally Challenging Situation?”

“each person brings his or her own unique experiences, motivations, hopes, fears, and quirks to the table”

have hard conversations
“tell someone that she isn’t meeting the expectations of her role”

“defuse rather than escalate tensions, then you’ll be better equipped to deal with the range of emotionally charged scenarios that meet any manager’s path.”

Not good reasons to become a manager
“I Want to Progress in My Career”

“None of the designers were truly sold on my idea. They didn’t think it was going to succeed. And because of that, the work trudged along, lacking heart and soul.” “the best outcomes come from inspiring people to action, not telling them what to do.”

“Maybe you’re seen as talented and well respected, so it feels like the next logical step.”

“clear principles outlining what a manager does and how his success is measured.”

Leadership: “People must want to follow you.”

“What did you and your past manager discuss that was most helpful to you?
What are the ways in which you’d like to be supported?
How do you like to be recognized for great work?
What kind of feedback is most useful for you?
Imagine that you and I had an amazing relationship. What would that look like?”

“What does it mean to do a great job versus an average or poor job? Can you give me some examples?
Can you share your impressions of how you think Project X or Meeting Y went? Why do you think that?
I noticed that Z happened the other day. . . . Is that normal or should I be concerned?
What keeps you up at night? Why?
How do you determine which things to prioritize?”

Build new relationships
“Since I’m new, you might not feel comfortable sharing everything with me right away. I hope to earn your trust over time. I’ll start by sharing more about myself, including my biggest failure ever . . .” I love this anecdote because it’s the epitome of “show, don’t tell.”

Critical feedback aren't taken personally
“I don’t feel that you recognize when I’m doing a good job” 
 “Last week, when you said X, it made me feel as if you don’t really understand my project.” ”

“My reports would gladly work for me again.”

managing is caring

“the team actually becomes better off when brilliant assholes leave.”
“He makes you feel like an idiot.”

“though he regularly puts others down, manages to come out the hero because he is simply heads and tails more capable than anyone else.”

My manager was right, I made a mistake
“A few years ago, I found myself having a difficult conversation with my manager about the design of a new product we were building. He had repeatedly given me feedback that what he’d seen in the past few reviews felt too complicated.
He was right. My diagnosis was that we were simultaneously moving too quickly and trying to add too many bells and whistles. The result was that the entire experience felt confusing. However, I was struggling to get everyone aligned on cutting features and pushing back our release date.”

من در تویتر فکر می کردم ریسم یک احمقه که به حای سریع عمل کردن و استارتاپی کد زدن می خواد بوراکراسی رو طی کنه. در نهایت طبق نظر اون عمل کردم که تک لید شدمو الان که نگاه می کنم می بینم اون درست بود. استارتاپی کد زدن کیفیت پایین داره و قابل توسعه و ادامه کار توسط سایرین نیست

مخالفت با پروپوزال:
    “You’ll find a way through this”
“It’s not as bad as you think,” 
 “Here are some things to try.”

“Whenever I’m talking with my reports, it’s easy to spend all our time on the things that need improvement.
And yet, all of us likely remember moments when a kind word about our unique strengths made us swell with pride and gave us more fuel to achieve our goals.”

“There is one quality that sets truly great managers apart from the rest: they discover what is unique about each person and then capitalize on it,” ”

Good CEOs know that they should double down on the projects that are working and put more people, resources, and attention on those rather than get every single project to the point of “not failing.

“good investors know that helping to identify and grow a single start-up into the next billion-dollar company is worth dozens of other investments that lose money. ”

“one of my reports—we’ll call him Fred—was passionate about designing for cutting-edge technologies. His work would often incorporate inventive new interactions that were a delight to experience on state-of-the-art phones.
But our team designs products used by billions of people all over the world, and the vast majority do not have the latest technology.”

“At the end of the day, if you don’t believe someone is set up to succeed in his current role, the kindest thing you can do is to be honest with him and support him in moving on. ”
“You have two options at this point: help someone find a new role in your organization or let him or her go.”
“Perhaps it’s you who shouldn’t be his manager, not the other way around.”

“Be compassionate in examining the past, but focus on the future and don’t prolong the breakup. Help your report get on the best possible path toward the next chapter, and use the experience to become a better manager.
The good news is that letting people go is an extreme situation. More commonly, the right coaching can help your reports understand what to aspire to, how to overcome the habits that are holding them back, and how to grow their impact.”

“Great managers are excellent coaches, and the secret sauce to coaching is the topic of our next chapter—giving effective feedback.”

“If this person were not already at the organization, would I recommend that another team hire him or her knowing what I know?”

“the end goal of management is to get better outcomes. ”

“Assume the role was open. Would you rather rehire your current leader or take a gamble on someone else?”
This question helped me to zero in on what really mattered. Here I was, worried about dozens of details—how Raphael would feel, whether or not I was giving him enough feedback, the thrash everyone else would go through—when the most important question was, What’s going to make the team more successful over the next few years?
The following week, I sat down with Raphael and told him that I felt he should move off his current role. The conversation wasn’t easy, but looking back now, I know that it was the right call. The new manager who came in afterward had a wealth of experience running bigger teams. Like a seasoned captain who had sailed all over the world, he sauntered up to the wheel and steered the ship out of the storm. After a few months of transition, the team thrived and its work improved.
Change is hard, but trust your instincts. Would you hire this person again if the role ”

I have been WRONG a lot! and I am proud to share those experiences and the lessons learned.

Subpages (1): Strategy
Morteza Shahriari Nia,
Apr 14, 2021, 10:51 PM
Morteza Shahriari Nia,
Apr 14, 2021, 10:51 PM